Two Italian-American Weeks in
Italy's Veneto

by

James C. Mancuso
Summer, 1997



A report of a two-week visit to
The Veneto Region of Italy.


Causes

Slowly, after I had begun to develop an assurance that I had rather firmly established myself in my professional and family roles, I began to elaborate another role that lurked in the shadows of my personal construct system. I consciously began to embellish my role as Italian-peasant-transplanted to The United States of America. To facilitate the development of that role; I needed to travel to Italy, among other things, in order to reestablish contact with the families which my grandparents and my father had left behind when they had emigrated to The USA. Those of my colleagues at The University at Albany who had managed to arrange their financial affairs so that they could do so, would travel to Italy, to return and to tell us effusively of the wonders of the great culture in which they had immersed themselves during their brief excursions. Why shouldn't I, whose self constructions already had woven into them some salient elements of that culture, elaborate the existing texture so that I, too, could enjoy the more thoroughly the culture of Italy?

My connections to the culture of Italy first developed during the first eleven years of my life; when I lived in the coal mining city of Hazleton, Pennsylvania, surrounded by grandparents who had immigrated to that area from the region south of Salerno, Italy, known as The Cilento. My mother was the first child born to my grandparents after they were married and had started their life in The USA. She was married to my father in 1926, four years after he arrived in Hazleton. He was 22 years old and she was 16. Additionally, during the years 1946-47, I had the opportunity to spend nine months in the Mediterranean region. Most of that time, I served as a minor aide to the public information officer of the Commander of Naval Forces in The Mediterranean, based in Naples. When I married Susan [who originated in a family of Polish immigrants] I already had had the opportunity to become rather proficient in a kitchen, so that we had no difficulty weaving Italian food habits into our own family's meals and celebrations. Ever since finishing graduate school, I have maintained a garden, built as closely as possible on the model which I absorbed by participating in the gardening done by my parents [Vincenzo and Dolores] and my mother's family [The Carrato family, who lived down the street from us in Hazleton, Pennsylvania]. Somewhere in my cerebrum there remained the synapses which connected the kitchen-oriented vocabulary of the dialect of South Salerno to the constructions which the words represented. [My faith in the existence of those synapses would gain regular validation when I found myself repeating phrases which were replicas of phrases my grandmother had often repeated.] And, as a long-time student, over the years, I had absorbed a rough outline of the history of Italy.

In 1971, having decided that we would go to Italy during the summer of 1972, I concentrated on reading more about the history of Italy and the Mediterranean and on trying to drop my South Italian dialect and my poorly mastered Spanish from my linguistic skills. I sat in on a year's worth of courses in Italian language and did manage to gain some facility with the current, formal Italian language.

Between our first trip to Italy, in 1972, and the end of 1994, Susan and I had traveled to Italy six times. During the last of our seven trips, we followed a six-week long itinerary through Southern Italy, Sicily, and Tuscany. By the winter of 1997 my yearning to return to Italy became rather intense. We decided, however, that we would not take on the task of traveling through Italy. We decided, instead, that we would settle into one location, and simply luxuriate in our participation in the culture of Italy's Veneto Region.



Building Expectations

For several months prior to our trip, I took many opportunities to gather information from that which was available in the internet. We had decided that we would spend our time in the northeast of Italy -- the part of Italy that Susan and I had explored least. Based on the information I gathered from the internet, we decided that we would locate in the city of Treviso. Treviso is located about 25 miles north and slightly west of Venice. The trains from Treviso to Venice run very frequently, and the trip takes about 25 minutes.

From information that we collected on the net, we found an inexpensive hotel which was recommended by a traveler who reported on his trip on the internet. We made our reservations at the hotel, Il Becherie, and proceeded to gather information about other places we could visit from that base -- Venice, Vicenza, Verona, Asolo, etc. By other e-mail routes we made contact with a young Italian-American woman who is working in Venice, and we made contact with a professional colleague who holds a position at the University of Verona. We also gathered information about arranged local tours that we might wish to join. We had not used the internet to prepare for our previous trips. After this experience, I can predict that we will continue to rely on the internet to plan our future trips.



Travel

Susan and I left Albany, New York, on a small American Eagle plane which took us to Kennedy Airport. There we boarded an evening British Airways Flight to London/Heathrow Airport, where we transferred to a British Airways flight that arrived at Venice International Airport at 1:45 PM, Venice time. The Venice Airport has recently been expanded to serve international flights, and we can predict that those who use this airport will find the press of travelers to be somewhat intimidating. Venice exists, primarily, to serve tourists. If the tourist traffic on May 10 can allow one to predict what the tourist traffic will be like on July 10, one should be prepared to encounter huge crowds.

Nevertheless, people seemed to be moving easily through the customs, passport checks, arranging further transportation, etc. Venice, as one might expect, will offer a traveler a somewhat novel means of moving from the airport to his destination in the city. Motor launches take passengers over the Venetian lagoon to hotels in the city.

Though one needs to travel only about 20 miles to reach Treviso from the Venice airport, we were not willing to pay a 65.00 dollar cab fare. The next best arrangements involve taking a bus which covers the route between the airport and the railroad station in the city of Mestre -- the large mainland city bordering the lagoon. From Mestre comfortable trains travel regularly to Treviso. One never waits more than thirty minutes for one of the trains that cover that route. Thus, though one can take little pleasure from lugging bags between airports, busses, and trains -- especially after a 16 hour trip -- we reached our hotel with relatively minimum inconvenience.

Treviso proved to be an ideal location for exploring the Veneto, as we had expected. As in most of Italy, the bus and train systems are very well organized. Ticket sellers treated us courteously, despite our ineptness as we became acquainted with the procedures which one must follow while using public transportation. It is not surprising that the ticket sellers become impatient with travelers who fail to read the prominently displayed schedules and then hold up lines of ticket buyers by asking confusing questions in a language which the ticket sellers do not understand. It also is not surprising that a traveler needs to take some practice in interpreting the schedules, particularly if he/she is to understand terms such as ferial and festiva. In the Venice railroad station a traveler can expet excellent and courteous help in planning his/her travel. In Venice, we were given very courteous help by personnel in the official tourism offices in the railroad station and in other strategic locations. In the smaller cities, the official tourism offices tend to be located in the center of the city. We learned to give strict attention to the Italian customs about business hours when we planned our visits to the tourist centers.

Each of the transportation systems which we used -- local buses, long distance buses, and trains -- now use a process which requires a passenger to validate his/her ticket in a machine located either in the station or on the bus. A traveler might never be asked to show his/her validated ticket, but one always must expect that an official will make a sweep through the vehicle asking for tickets. Failing to produce a ticket that has been validated in the machine, which stamps date and time on the ticket, can result in a large fine. On our first train ride, we did not understand the system. The official accepted our plea of ignorance, and wrote and signed a validation on the ticket. On another trip we missed the crucial step of validation. The official in this case was less benign; but he did not levy the fine, despite his clear expressions of annoyance. This process, though confusing at first, definitely facilitates the movement of the crowds which use the public transportation.

In all, though we understand that being able to communicate using the Italian language does give one greater flexibility, the only notable difficulty we encountered in our travel occurred when the bus on which we returned from Asolo to Treviso developed radiator trouble, and the driver was forced to make frequent stops to replenish the water in the system. All the vehicles were clean and comfortable. The trains are fast. We enjoyed sharing space with personnel and other travelers, who inevitably treated us with courtesy and extended help, often without our having requested help.



Cibi, Pane e Vino

For the most part, the prices of prepared and unprepared food in Italy do match the prices we pay in The USA. The prices in top of the line restaurants, however, are comfortably below the prices one pays in similar restaurants in The USA.

If one eats all his/her meals in restaurants, he/she will miss one of the great pleasures of a visit to Italy. Susan and I thoroughly enjoy arising early, getting out to the bar for a caffe latte and a piece of pastry, and then wandering around the open air market to pick up an assortment of fruit and to observe the tremendous variety of foodstuffs which the vendors display. Often the market will be attended by one or two salumerie or latterie. The huge variety of prepared meats and cheeses prompts one to envy the Italians. To deprive one's self of the opportunity to sample these special foodstuffs would be to do serious penance. An etto [about three ounces] of this, and an etto of that must go into one's shopping bag. One mustn't fail to pick out a sampling of one of the dozen different types of olives on display. Then a visit to the panificio to pick up an assortment of tasty, crunchy-crusted pannini. With this collection of goodies, a traveler in Italy is prepared to create an impromptu picnic -- in the hotel room, on a park bench, on the train between cities, etc. Oh -- how could I?? I forgot the wine!!!! It's hard to believe, but, yes, it is true: a very good bottle of wine can be purchased for about 4.00 dollars in one of the busy food stores. One must be sure to pack a corkscrew in his toiletry bag!

Anyone whose family has taught him/her the ways in which wine enhances a convivial meal will have an added source of delight during a stay in The Veneto region. Long ago, Ernest Hemingway contributed to the popularity of Valpolicello by describing one of his protagonist's partiality to that mellow red wine. Today the Soave and the Bardolino, which also are produced in the region, are equally popular. In the immediate area of Treviso, prosecco appears to rank as the most popular table wine. Prosecco is a mildly sweet wine which gains an extra appeal on account of its frizzante character. Though a person who had learned the positive values of a good wine by helping Dad and Grandpa with their pressings will happily celebrate his/her early training during his/her travels in the Veneto, he/she will also experience the frustration of needing to practice the restraint that Dad and Grandpa also had advised! After all, a two week visit involves, at best, 28 meals at which one can sample the many varieties which the vintners of the Veneto produce.

At one of the extraordinary meals we enjoyed under her guidance; Professor Bianca De Bernardi, who offered us several days of incomparable hospitality, introduced us to an alcoholic drink that should be in everyone's repertory. She informed us that this after-dinner drink is known as sgrappina. Our hostess indidated that the term grop suggests a lump. In the Italian language the prefix s, compares to the English language's dis. The name of this drink, then suggests a dislumping -- an apt term if one might feel that a bit of overindulgence has occurred. One prepares the drink by putting a small scoop of lemon sherbert into a tall wine glass. A half ounce of vodka is poured over the lemon ice. The glass is then filled with champagne, or prosecco. A variation on this recipe calls for grappa instead of vodka. Perhaps the name of the drink derives from this latter variation. We decided that when we return home we would use grappa to prepare this drink. The Veneto, after all, is also famous for the brandy that takes its name from a part of that region, grappa. grappaincon A liter of grappa purchased at the Venice airport duty free shop will supply us with a replacement for the vodka when we next prepare our sgropine.

To be served an unacceptable meal in an eating establishment in Italy seems to be close to zero probability. A poor meal is actually memorable. Susan and I can recount when and where we had unfortunate eating experiences. In our family, we discuss supremely exquisite eating experiences in the same tones we use to discuss a fantastic theater experiences. During this trip, we had four meals that we have discussed in these terms. On our second day in Treviso, which happened to be Mother's Day, we chose to have our pranzo at one of the restaurants recognized in a list which we took from a site on the internet, Ristorante L'incontro. We had our last pranzo, during our last evening in Treviso, at the restaurant associated with our hotel, Ristorante Beccherie. When Bianca De Bernardi gave us a guided tour of the supremely attractive town of Lazise on Lago Garda, we capped our pleasure-filled stay in the town with a pranzo at La Taverna da Oreste. Then, after our interaction with the students and faculty at The University of Verona, once again benefitting from Bianca's total familiarity with the Verona region, we had our light meal of the day at Pizzeria La Torre, in the heart of Verona. At this point, I will refrain from elaborating on the food, ambience, and service we enjoyed at these establishments. I know, however, that when our family gathers for another dinner, and when we are well into our description of one of these experiences, everyone will laugh when someone again repeats the observation, "Here we are enjoying a great dinner, and what are we doing? Talking about another great dinner!!! It's not hard to infer this family's priorities!!"



Engaging the Cultural Patrimony of The Veneto

A two week visit can provide only an infinitesimal opportunity to place into context all that survives of the more than 2000 years during which the cultural partrimony of The Veneto has accumulated. Every step of any stroll through the region puts one directly into contact with another human achievement that deserves study and appreciation -- buildings, canals, bridges, fortresses, town walls, city gates, boats, ships, furniture, engraving, printing, jewelry, musical performances and instruments, collections of paintings, statuary, inlaid floors, elaborate altars, eloquently expressed conversation, fashion, foods, vinyards, orchards, and on and on. One would be very fortunate if his/her experiences as an American has allowed him/her a small opportunity to begin to build a base for that study and appreciation. Those of us who share an Italian-American background, perhaps, have been gifted with a larger base from which to build an appreciation of that cultural patrimony.

Here, I will take the opportunity to make some personal observations, hoping to present my reactions to some of those things that anyone can find described in the contents of the plethora of media which have been produced to document the human achievements that one enounters in The Veneto.

The Language. Would everyone enjoy observing the people of The Veneto converse as much as I enjoy hearing and seeing them use the Italian language? Unfortunately, I haven't mastered the Italian language well enough to understand everything that is said in the exchange between two native speakers. Nevertheless, I envy their ability to shape sentences that sound like a dramatic musical phrase, while at the same enhancing the communication with facial and bodily gestures. And, as inept as I might be at doing so, I relish the opportunity to join in such conversations and allowing myself to become absorbed enough to ignore my misuse of grammar and sentence construction. When engaging in such conversations, I find that the extra-linguistic cues which a speaker provides when he/she speaks to me directly allows me to process the language with greater facility.

I found that the Italians eagerly encouraged me to join into conversation using their language. Over and over, I was asked, "Where did you learn to speak Italian so well." In the face of this kind of flattery, I would soon come to believe that I have underestimated my skill. But then I became convinced that this comment derived from my dialogue partners' assessment of my pronunciation, rather than of my grammar and syntax! I did get one reaction that surprised me. In a salumeria in Venice, the storekeeper said, "Oh, you have Calabrian origins." Could he really have detected the remnants of the family's dialect in the Italian I now use, or did he come to that conclusion on the basis of a shrewd observation of some other feature of my behavior??

The music. Opera, as the western world knows opera, began in Venice. Venice provided a significant core of baroque and classical music. The role of music in The Veneto is more than legendary. Most followers of the long line of the musical achievements of Europe would be able to recognize the prime status of institutions such as Teatro Fenice, The Arena of Verona, and I Solisti Veneti. Nevertheless, I had not expected that music would continue to hold a central, vital core in the cultural life of the Veneto. Susan and I succeeded in attending a superb concert by I Solisti Veneti in the Teatro Comunale in Treviso. The quality of the experience of that evening increased our regret at being unable to join the audiences at the numerous performances which were advertised on hundreds of posters, etc., that we saw as we moved around through all the towns we visited. I was also surprised at the number of events which would feature performers that I recognized as "stars."

Who financed all of these cultural achievements? The quality of the cultural artifacts which surrounded the inhabitants of any town or city in The Veneto leads one to conclude that enormous amounts of money were spent on facilities that were available to the populace of the community. All of The Veneto, for example, is laced with canals connecting one or another place within the extensive river systems that flow through the area. These conditions, then, require the construction and maintenance of thousands of bridges. Most of the bridges are constructed with elaborate stone work. A beautiful bridge would signify the status of a town or an area. Some of the bridges would rank as architectural masterpieces. Who paid for them and then maintained them? Churches, theaters, town halls, and so on demonstrate the immense wealth that leaders diverted into public buildings. Some of these great buildings house collections of paintings, furniture, jewelry, statuary and other artifacts that would be sufficient to supply a museum that would be the pride of many cities in The United States.

Of course, one can conclude that these works result from the patronage of the immensely wealthy merchants who controlled the unimaginable profits that flowed into the region when the Venetians controlled the trade with Eastern Asia. One must also be aware of the results of the general populace's efforts to emulate the super-wealthy. For example, on this trip, I developed a better understanding of the institutions known as the scuole grande. The scuole developed from the Venetian guilds, and they were tightly controlled by agencies of the city's ruling factions-- as were all the institutions of The Most Serene Republic. The membership of the scuole included both nobles and commoners. Some of the members were the patrons of the scuola, while others were the receivers of the charity of the fraternities. Among their other functions, the scuole provided places of worship and meeting rooms for their members. An example of the results of one scuola's efforts is found in the headquarters of Scuola Grande di San Rocco. Imagine the wealth which the members of this scuola poured into their gathering place! The walls and ceilings of the magnificent buildings of The Scuola, for example, are covered with acres of paintings executed by Jacopo Robusti (Tintoretto). The Scuola Grande di San Rocco was but one of six of Venice's scuole grande which existed alongside about three times that number of smaller scuole. And one must keep in mind two other significant points. First, the citizens of outlying towns and cities in The Veneto spent similarly to embellish their communities. For example, the town hall () and the theater (Teatro Olimpico) of the city of Vicenza; which were designed by the revered architect, Andrea Palladio, still serve their original functions, after more than 400 years of use. One also must keep in mind that warriors constantly swept over the Veneto; and they were not nice people. Indeed, as a result of a World War II bombing, the roof of the Basilica Palladiana) collapsed. Thus, as one views the remaining cultural patrimony of The Veneto, one also must think of how much of the achievements of the people of the region have disappeared.

Our visits to the places in which we were able to view the works of the great Venetian painters were given a special dimension by our having been able to visit a superb showing of the works of Giambattista Tiepolo. Curators had assembled the show, recently exhibited at New York City's Metropolitan Museum, in celebration of the 300th anniversery of Tiepolo's birth. Tiepolo, with the help of his sons, left behind a prodigious amount of work of unquestioned superiority. Repeatedly, at the dozens of sites which preserve his paintings and frescoes, we saw the originals of the works which we had viewed on our computer screen, thanks to a the expertly designed and programmed CD-ROM which we had purchased at The Metropolitan Museum.

Further considerations. Our savoring of the immense pleasure we derived from direct observation of the cultural patrimony of The Veneto, nevertheless, was constantly tempered by considerations of a series of underlying questions. Were these great achievements financed at the expense of the less powerful elements of the Venetian society? Were those splendid villas built by the people who had access to the means of doing violence on the less powerful? Were they living in those villas while the contadini of the region were relegated to sharing their living quarters with their livestock, as they were in The Kingdom of Naples? Did the powerful build those palaces and villas, which have been transformed into luxury hotels for today's super rich, on the rents extracted from contadini who were forced to remain on their lands? Had they been given a choice, would the contadini of The Veneto and the workers in Venice's fabled shipyard, The Arsenal, have migrated to The New World, to escape the degradation which accompanied la miseria; as did their counterparts in Southern Italy and Sicily when they were given the opportunity to do so, after 1860?



Some Stimulating Happenings

The Swarovski Exhibit. I am sure that a person could find sufficient entertainment by circulating among the constant round of shows, demonstrations, exhibits, and so on that continually occur in The Veneto. Even as outsiders, by reading posters, announcements in travel brochures, and handouts, we were able to enjoy a series of such events.

Susan and I must rank our attendance at the Swarovski Crystal exhibit among the most enjoyable experiences of our visit. This traveling exhibit was arranged elegantly in a very large hall in The Prefettura in Treviso. We were familiar with the artistry of Swarovski Crystal, so that we appreciated an opportunity to learn about the history of the firm, the nature of its operations, the range of it productions, and so on. When we entered the hall, we were greeted by two young women. We engaged them in a brief conversation, in Italian, about Swarovski Crystal, and then proceeded to follow their directions to view the circuit of exhibits. We were among the first persons to enter the hall that morning, so that few other people were in attendance. Apparently the young hostesses determined that they would find some diversion by offering to give us a personally guided tour through the exhibit.

We gratefully accepted their offer to guide us, and we were well rewarded for doing so. In the first place, the vivacity, charm, and enthusiasm of these young women created an ambience that totally enriched our view of Swarovski Crystal. No amount of personnel training could inculcate such radiance into the representatives of a firm. The charms of these young women were so infectious that we were fortunate that they were not selling Swarovski products at the exhibit. I am sure that we would have overspent in an effort to capture and take home with us the glow which that interaction had produced.

The familiar briefcase. Susan and I were exiting the railroad station at Treviso, returning from a day in Venice. A man carrying a distinctive canvas briefcase passed us on his way to a train. I looked at his briefcase, and was sure that I owned a similar briefcase. A closer look convinced me that I was correct. I boldly stopped the man and asked him where he had obtained the case. He was rather surprised, but he held up the case and showed me the logo on its side. I quickly said, "I have a similar case, which I also was given when I registered at the International Congress of Psychology, in Sidney, Australia in 1988!" In this way, I met Professor Giancarlo Trentini who teaches at the University of Venice.

A presentation to faculty and students at The University of Verona. Giving lectures in Italy leaves me in a very stimulated state. I deeply regret that I cannot give a professional lecture in Italian. I always try to imagine how my father would react if he were to attend one of these lectures. He left Calabria in 1922, educated barely above literacy. However he had acquired his aspirations for his children, he certainly knew that we were required to become "smart." I doubt if he could have created the imagery of his son lecturing at a university in Italy. As I worry about whether or not I am successfully communicating my propositions to the students and faculty at The University of Verona, I also must wonder if they think of me as an Italian-American or if they think of me simply as an American professor of psychology!!

Another Mancuso family. While traveling to visit the dream city, Asolo -- "the city of a hundred vistas" -- Susan and I met and engaged in conversation another vivacious woman who had spent her life in The Veneto. When I gave her my card, she noted that she had had a professor, while attending liceo, who also carried the surname Mancuso. He taught ancient languages; and, as an avocation, he had developed expertise on the history of Venice's Ghetto.

Knowing of this man, I had special impetus to meet him. Obviously, meeting another teacher who shared our surname would provide special stimulation. And, I had determined to capitalize on his knowledge of The Ghetto. I built an anticipation of being able, after our return home, to share a special experience with those of our friends who honor the history and traditions of Judaism.

During the afternoon break, on our next day in Venice, I began to telephone the five Mancusos listed in the Venice phone book. [The name Mancuso is a common Southern Italian name, but is rare in North Italy.] On the third try, I found Professor Giorgio Mancuso.

Though he needed to return to his teaching responsibilities that afternoon, he arranged to meet Susan and me at his school. Additionally, he asked his son, Gabrielle, to give us a tour of The Ghetto. Gabrielle is a student of Hebrew at The University of Venice. He has been studying under a stipend supplied by the Israeli government. Additionally, like his pianist brother, Gabrielle is an accomplished musician. He plays the viola. [I experience a slight invalidation when I use the word play. In our conversation I referred to Gabrielle's "playing" of the viola by using the Italian term for play -- giocare. I immediately realized the ineptness of using that term instead of the Italian term suonare. One sounds the viola. One does not play the viola!!!]

Our interaction with Gabrielle was another of those delightful exchanges we had with the young people of the area. He enthusiastically guided us through The Ghetto, sharing his extensive knowledge of the Hebrew language and of the customs and history of The Ghetto. Further, in that his great-grandfather had been the migrant from Palermo to Venice, his family no longer maintains contacts with other Mancusi in the south. Gabrielle and his family relished the opportunity to meet another Mancuso who still had contacts with a family of Mancusi in Calabria. They asked all kinds of questions about our family in the south, and I concluded that they hoped, by doing so, to develop some idea of how the Mancuso family which had remained in Palermo might have fared.

When Gabrielle indicated that he was trying very hard to develop high facility in use of the English language, Susan and I immediately agreed that he would be a very welcome guest in our home, should he wish to come to the Albany area for an extended visit. We informed him that we could put him into contact with those of our friends who have extensive personal and scholarly knowledge of Jewish history, particularly the history of the Jews in The USA and in the Albany area; so that he could add a special dimension to his academic studies as well as gaining greater mastery of the English language. Further, if he were to come to this part of New York State during the summer, he could arrange to elaborate his contacts with the music world by visiting the great music venues of our area.

When we parted from the Mancuso family in Venice, we still did not have a strong agreement that they would explore more fully our invitation. I sensed that the strength of the traditions of family attachment, as that tradition is expressed in Italy, constrains a family from contemplating a long separation from a cherished son. Susan and I, of course, eagerly anticipate the lifting of such constraints.



A Brief Conclusion

Though the level of satisfaction that Susan and I enjoyed on our visit to The Veneto went far beyond our expectations, we constantly referred to a missing element -- "If only we could arrange to share these experiences with our friends and family!!!" And, on a more general plane, we had long discussions about the unfortunate circumstances by which millions of Italian-Americans were induced to "assimilate" to the point where they no longer have the points of contact -- family connections, some skill in the use of the Italian language, some knowledge of the history of their family in the context of the history of Italy, and so on -- which would allow them to gain extra enjoyment from an extended stay in one of Italy's great centers of Italian culture. As we engaged in such discussion, we repeatedly expressed our good fortune at having come under the influence of people like Angelo Pellegrini [See his An immigrant's quest: An American dream, San Francisco: North Point Press, 1986]. Through reading works like those of Pellegrini, we strengthened the conviction that one could maintain his/her contacts with the culture of his/her non-USA forebears while concommitantly enacting the role of an active, contributing citizen of The United States of America.

This essay was developed as a part of the effort of The Albany (NY) Area Lodge of The Sons of Italy to make available material that will develop an appreciation and understanding of The Italy-to-USA Avventura. The writers of this essay and other text found on this world wide web site claim sole responsibility for the content of their productions.

       


       Anyone interested in obtaining a printed copy of this essay may change the print size by going to the view menu, and then instructing the program to print the text. It would be advisable to set the printer to print in black ink.  


 
. The author, Jim Mancuso died on June 10th, 2005. We maintain this site in memory of all the things that he did for us.

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